Frequently Asked Questions

More Questions

Open the Control Panel, open Administrative Tools and then open Computer Management. Click on Disk Management and see if the SSD drive is shown in the right window pane. If it is, right-click on where it is labelled as disk 1, disk 2, etc. and select "Initialize disk" (this may come up automatically when you go into Disk Management).

In XP, right click on the area to the right of that and choose "New Partition". Then choose "Primary Partition" in the partition wizard. Continue with the wizard by choosing the size, drive letter and formatting of the partition.

In Windows Vista and 7, right click on the area to the right of the disk label and choose "New Simple Volume". Continue with the wizard by choosing the size, drive letter and formatting of the partition.

In MacOS, a "disk insertion" window will appear. Click on the "Initialize" button. This will take you to the disk utility. Select the Kingston drive from the list of drives on the left side of the window. From the actions available, choose Partition. For the "Volume Scheme", choose "1 partition". For the format, choose MacOS extended for a permanent drive. Choose ExFAT for an external drive (available on MacOS 10.6.6 and above). Click Apply. A warning window will appear stating that you will erase all data from the drive. Click on the partition button at the bottom.

FAQ: KSD-060314-GEN-14

It is strongly recommended that this drive NOT be used as a single boot drive. These drives are designed to be used in a RAID configuration in a server environment. If you intend to use this drive as a single boot drive, you MUST disable the TRIM function otherwise drive instability and data loss is likely to occur. This problem will not occur if the drive is configured in a RAID. TRIM commands cannot be sent to the drive when SSDs are in a RAID configuration. We are working on a firmware update to resolve this problem.

In the meantime, if you are using it as a single boot drive, you can disable TRIM. To disable the TRIM command in Windows 7 and Server 2008, type the following and press enter in the Elevated command:

fsutil behavior set disabledeletenotify 1

In Linux, TRIM must be enabled manually. In Mac OS, TRIM is only supported with Apple branded drives.

FAQ: KSD-070512-E100-01

When the SSD is recognised in the BIOS, but the Windows 7 installation does not detect the drive:
Follow these steps:

Disconnect any other hard drives or SSDs. Boot the Windows 7 installation disk. Choose repair, then advanced, then command prompt. Type: "diskpart" without quotes and press Enter. You will see a prompt labeled "diskpart". Type the following commands and press Enter after each one.

Diskpart > Select Disk 0
Diskpart > Clean
Diskpart > Create Partition Primary Align=1024
Diskpart > Format Quick FS=NTFS
Diskpart > List Partition
Diskpart > Active
Diskpart > Exit

Then, reboot the computer to the Windows 7 installation disk.

KSD-100214-GEN-20

FAQ: KSD-100214-GEN-20

Trim and garbage collection are technologies that modern SSDs incorporate to improve both their performance and endurance. When your SSD is fresh out of the box, all of the NAND blocks are empty so the SSD can write new data to the empty blocks in a single operation. Over time, most of the empty blocks will become used blocks that contain user data. In order to write new data to used blocks, the SSD is forced to perform a read-modify-write cycle. The read-modify-write cycle hurts the SSD's overall performance because it must now do three operations instead of a single operation. The read-modify-write cycle also causes write amplification, which hurts the SSD's overall endurance.

Trim and garbage collection can work together to improve SSD performance and endurance by freeing up used blocks. Garbage collection is a function built into the SSD controller that consolidates data stored in used blocks in order to free up more empty blocks. This process happens in the background and is completely handled by the SSD itself. However, the SSD may not know which blocks contain user data and which blocks contain stale data that the user has already deleted. This is where the trim function comes in. Trim allows the operating system to inform the SSD that data has been deleted so that the SSD can free up those previously used blocks. For trim to work, both the operating system and the SSD must support it. Most modern operating systems and SSDs support trim, although most RAID configurations do not.

Kingston SSDs take advantage of both garbage collection and trim technologies in order to maintain the highest possible performance and endurance over their lifetime.

FAQ: KSD-011411-GEN-13

ElectroStatic Discharge, ESD is simply the discharge of built-up static electricity. ESD should not be taken lightly as this is one of the few things that an individual can do to damage or destroy their computer or hardware components. It is like when you rub your feet on the carpet and you touch something metal. ESD can occur without the user feeling a shock and will occur when only working on the inside of the computer or handling hardware.

How to help prevent ESD
The best method of preventing ESD is to use an ESD wrist strap or an earthing mat or table. However, because most users do not have access to these items, we have included the below steps to help reduce the chance of ESD as much as possible.

  • Standing – We recommend that you are standing at all times when working on the computer. Sitting on a chair can generate more electrostatic.
  • Cables – Make sure that everything is removed from the back of the computer (power cable, mouse, keyboard, etc).
  • Clothes – Do not wear any clothing that conducts a lot of Electrical Charge, such as a wool jumper.
  • Accessories – To help reduce ESD and prevent other problems, it is also a good idea to remove all jewellery.
  • Weather – Electrical storms can increase the ESD risk; unless absolutely necessary, try not to work on a computer during an electrical storm. In very dry areas, the air itself becomes a part of the electrostatic build-up mechanism every time there is an air flow (wind, air conditioning, blower) passing over an insulated surface. Do not let high humidity levels build false confidence, and beware of corrosion problems with interconnects and other electrical interfaces.

To learn more about ESD and how to protect your electronics, please refer to the below site.

ESD Association
http://www.esda.org/aboutESD.html

FAQ: KTC-Gen-ESD
Secure Erase User Guide for Linux
This guide will walk you through securely erasing your Kingston SSD using Linux tools

SATA Secure Erase Procedure

Warning
Please make sure to have a full backup of any important data before you proceed!

Prerequisites
• You must have root privileges.
• You must have your SSD connected to the system as a secondary (non-OS) drive.
• You must have lsscsi and hdparm installed. You may need to install them with your distribution’s package manager.
• Your drive must not be in a security freeze.
• Your drive must not be password protected.

Instructions
1. Find the device name (/dev/sdX) of the drive you wish to erase:
# lsscsi

2. Make sure drive security is not frozen:
# hdparm -I /dev/sdX | grep frozen

If the output shows "frozen" (instead of "not frozen") then you cannot continue to the next step. You must try to remove the security freeze by trying one of the following methods:

Method 1: Put the system to sleep (suspend to RAM) and wake it up. On most distributions the command to suspend is:
# systemctl suspend

Now issue the hdparm command again. If it worked the output will show “not frozen” (instead of “frozen”).
Method 2: Hot plug the drive. This is done by physically unplugging the SATA power cable from the drive and plugging it back in while the system is powered on. You may need to enable hot plug in BIOS. Not all systems support hot plug.

Now issue the hdparm command again. If it worked the output will show “not frozen” (instead of “frozen”).

3. Set a user password on the drive. The password can be anything. Here we are setting the password to “p”:
# hdparm --security-set-pass p /dev/sdX

4. Issue the secure erase command to the drive using the same password:
# hdparm --security-erase p /dev/sdX

This command may take a few minutes to complete. The drive password is removed upon successful completion.
If the secure erase is interrupted or otherwise fails your drive may become security locked. In this case you can remove the security lock using the command below and then try the secure erase procedure again:
# hdparm --security-disable p /dev/sdX

SATA Secure Erase Example



NVMe Secure Erase Procedure

Warning
Please make sure to have a full backup of any important data before you proceed!

Prerequisites
• You must have root privileges.
• You must have your SSD connected to the system as a secondary (non-OS) drive.
• You must have nvme-cli installed. You may need to install it with your distribution’s package manager.
• Your drive must not be password protected.

Instructions
1. Find the device name (/dev/nvmeXn1) of the drive you wish to erase:
# nvme list

2. Issue the format command to the drive. Here we set the secure erase setting to 1 which indicates a user data erase:
# nvme format /dev/nvmeXn1 --ses=1

This command may take a few minutes to complete.


NVMe Secure Erase Example

FAQ: KSM-SE-LIX
To determine which NVMe driver is in use, you can run the AS SSD benchmark tool and select your Kingston NVMe SSD from the drop-down menu. This will report the driver being used for that drive. If the driver is "iaStorAC" then your drive is using the Intel driver. If the driver is "stornvme" then your drive is using the Microsoft driver. FAQ: KSD-001525-001-00
Caution! The workarounds below will break RST RAID arrays and could lead to data loss. If your system has RST RAID
arrays you should consider an alternate solution.

Workaround 1: Disable RST Control in BIOS

This workaround requires BIOS options to enable or disable RST Control and is not available on all systems.

Note: Please backup all important data before you proceed!

1. Restart and enter the system BIOS
2. Locate the RST Configuration settings in BIOS
3. Change "RST Controlled" to "Not RST Controlled"
4. Save and exit BIOS
5. Open KSM and update the drive firmware

Once these steps are completed you may optionally switch back to "RST Controlled" in BIOS.

Workaround 2: Switch from RAID to AHCI in BIOS

This workaround is to change your system storage mode from RAID to AHCI and should work on all systems.

Note: Please backup all important data before you proceed!

1. Open msconfig
2. Select the Boot tab
3. Check Safe boot (minimal)
4. Click OK and Restart
5. When the system restarts go into the system BIOS
6. Change the storage mode from RAID to AHCI
7. Save and exit BIOS
8. Wait for Windows to boot into safe mode
9. Open msconfig
10. Select the Boot tab
11. Uncheck Safe boot
12. Click OK and Restart
13. Wait for Windows to boot normally
14. Open KSM and update the drive firmware

Once these steps are completed you may optionally switch the storage mode back to RAID in BIOS. FAQ: KSD-001525-001-01

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