A Kingston eMMC unit on a background of black machine casing.
eMMC life-cycle estimating, validating & monitoring
Processes handled by the NAND bus

NAND flash storage is not a simple read/write data medium. For reliable use, several algorithms should be implemented: NAND block management, garbage collection, error control and wear levelling. Modern NAND flash is managed, with algorithms on the storage device, not implemented in the host processor. This is to the benefit of its users, as it makes NAND management less complex for the host and simplifies product support and sustainment.

Host writes to NAND flash have inefficiencies that can cause the medium to fail earlier. NAND’s smallest organisational unit is the page, which can be read and programmed but not erased. The only organisational unit that can be erased is the block, which consists of many pages. Therefore, pages cannot be overwritten until a block is erased. Blocks can fail over time as their endurance level is reached. Defects that lead to early failures can also occur.

NAND flash has limited program-erase cycles available. Reaching that limit means the device is in EoL state, meaning that it is no longer reliable. Endurance varies depending on the NAND cells’ configuration.

Single-level cell configuration: this setup has the highest endurance and the greatest margin of error.

eMMC LBA 512B Sector Address

NAND Page & Block Address
0:31 Blk10, Pg101
32:63 Blk10, Pg102
64:95 Blk10, Pg103
96:127 Blk10, Pg104
128:159 Blk15, Pg57
160:191 Blk8, Pg129
192:223 Blk10, Pg107
224:255 Blk22, Pg88

eMMC reads and writes to 512-byte sector units, which are logical, not physical. Sector addresses are called Logical Block Addresses, or LBAs. When data is modified, erasing the entire NAND block is impractical, causing inefficient wear on pages that did not change. An LBA-PBA (Physical Block Address) mapping scheme provides smaller writes to balance block wear, a practice called wear levelling. LBAs are mapped to PBAs using an address translation table. This process balances block wear and improves write speed.

The process of address mapping works as follows:

  • eMMC sectors are 512 bytes, while NAND pages are 16kb. A mapping table groups 32 sequential sector addresses into a page-sized unit.
  • If a sector in a page group is modified, the controller reads the entire group of sectors for that page, updates any modified sectors, then programs new data back to a new page.
  • After the updated page is programmed, the table is updated, overwriting the prior entry with the block and page address of the updated NAND page.
  • Even if only one sector was modified, NAND flash must program a full page. This inefficiency is called write amplification. The ratio of NAND flash writes to eMMC device-level writes is the WAF (Write Amplification Factor).

Small, random, non-page-aligned rewrites are usually the greatest source of write amplification. To minimise WAF, writes should be aligned on a page boundary in multiples of page size units. This optimal unit size can be found in the optimal write size field of the extended CSD register.

The formula for determining Total Bytes Written, or TBW, is straightforward:

(device capacity * endurance factor) / WAF = TBW

Often, WAF is between 4 and 8, but it depends on the host system's write behaviour. For example, large sequential writes produce a lower WAF, while random writes of small data blocks produce a higher WAF. This kind of behaviour can often lead to early failure of storage devices.

For example, a 4GB eMMC with an endurance factor of 3000 and a WAF of 8 will equate to:

(4GB * 3000) / 8 = 1.5TB

The total bytes written of the eMMC device is 1.5TB. Therefore, we can write 1.5TB of data over the lifecycle of the product before reaching its EoL state.

To estimate your TBW requirements, estimate the daily usage of the device in question. For example, a workload featuring 500MB of daily write usage (and an intended 5 year lifecycle) will need a device that can reach a TBW greater than 915GB:

0.5GB * 365 = ~183GB a year, or 915GB over 5 years

The TBW can be used to determine the maximum permissible WAF for a device, since TBW = (DC * EF) / WAF. If your device life cannot reach the target TBW for your product application, you can try to improve it. Consider putting it in pseudo single-level cell mode, which can increase endurance tenfold by converting the device from TLC or MLC to single-bit-per-cell mode. However, this drastically reduces capacity: 50% for a two-bit-per-cell MLC device, and over 66% for a three-bit TLC device. If this solution is unsatisfactory for you, choosing a larger device to handle the same workload also helps. A device with twice the capacity will have double the TBW.

Kingston’s eMMC algorithms achieve a low write amplification factor. We offer multiple configurations to balance performance, lifetime and reliability. Device age can be monitored by using the JEDEC lifetime estimate tools filed in the EXT_CSD, a feature shared with all eMMC devices. Life is reported at increments of 10% based on the device’s endurance. One tool reports the age of TLC or MLC-configured NAND flash blocks, while the other reports the age of blocks configured in pseudo-SLC mode. Kingston eMMC devices also have vendor commands to return the average block age of the device. These are more precise than the JEDEC tools but require a little software development to use. Alternatively, you can send your aged device to Kingston for more comprehensive analysis.


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