Glossary

1R

1 Rank, or Single Rank, how many 64-bit data loads per module.

2R

2 Ranks, or Dual Rank, how many 64-bit data loads per module.

4R

4 Ranks, or Quad Rank, how many 64-bit data loads per module.


AMD

Advanced Micro Devices, Inc.

AMD EPYC™

AMD server processor series.

AMD EXPO™

AMD Extended Profiles for Overclocking DDR5.

AMD Ryzen™

AMD PC processor series.

pAES (Advanced Encryption Standard)

See FIPS. A block cipher for encrypting sensitive electronic data used by the US government under the name FIPS 197 since 2002.

Auto-Refresh Read Distribution Protection

The auto refresh function reads all the data on the flash memory areas, including those where data are rarely read out, and performs automatic error correction as required to prevent data losses caused by read disturb errors, data holding errors and other errors. The auto refresh function is performed in the background so that it causes little delay in the response to commands, even during the correction process.


Bad Block Management

Bad blocks contain one or more bits that have lost reliability. The bad blocks appear during the manufacturing process (Early Bad Blocks) or throughout the lifetime of the card (Later Bad Blocks). Both types of Bad Blocks are inevitable, so Bad Block Management is a necessity to manage these errors in NAND Flash devices. Bad Block Management will identify and flag bad blocks, it will then use the free extra capacity to replace the invalid blocks. It will stop data from writing to the bad blocks, which strengthens the reliability of the product. If the bad block has data, it will move the data to a valid block to prevent data loss.

bit

Smallest measurement of data in computing, representing a 1 or 0, on/off.

Byte

8 bits

Brute force

An unsophisticated cyberattack which attempts to crack a password or cryptographic key by trying every possible solution.


Capacity

A standard predetermined number of clock cycles for data reads/writes to or from the memory modules and the memory controller. Once the data read/write command and the row/column addresses are loaded, CAS Latency represents the wait time until the data is ready.

CAS

Column Address Strobe, used with latency or "CAS latency" is a series of timings that represent wait states for data.

CAS Latency

A standard predetermined number of clock cycles for data reads/writes to or from the memory modules and the memory controller. Once the data read/write command and the row/column addresses are loaded, CAS Latency represents the wait time until the data is ready.

Channel

Channel refers to the number of flash chips the controller can talk to simultaneously. Entry Level /Mainstream SSDs usually have 2 or 4 channels; higher performance SSDs typically have 8 channels, all the way up to 16 in datacenter SSDs.

CL

Short for Column Address Strobe Latency or "CAS latency" is a series of timings that represent wait states for data.

Cryptochip

A hardware tool which protects data on a USB drive by keeping encryption key management on the device, where it can be protected. The IronKey series of flash drives use cryptochips.


Data Rate

Refers to the speed class of a module, eg: 3200MT/s.

DDR

Double Data Rate, shortened from DDR SDRAM.

DDR3

Double Data Rate 3rd Generation SDRAM.

DDR3L

Double Data Rate 3rd Generation Low Voltage SDRAM.

DDR4

DDR (Double Data Rate) Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory (SDRAM) fourth-generation memory technology, more commonly referred to as “DDR4.” DDR4 memory modules are not backward compatible with any previous generations of DDR SDRAM due to lower voltage (1.2V), different pin configurations, and incompatible memory chip technology.

DDR5

DDR (Double Data Rate) Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory (SDRAM) fifth-generation memory technology, more commonly referred to as “DDR5.” DDR5 memory modules are not backward compatible with any previous generations of DDR SDRAM due to lower voltage (1.1V), different pin configurations and incompatible memory chip technology.

Design-In

Components or parts for non-traditional PCs/devices. Kingston memory module product line based on industry standards, part numbers start with "CBD".

DIMM

Dual In-line Memory Module.

DRAM

Dynamic Random Access Memory.

Dual Channel

Memory socket architecture where two identical memory modules installed aggregate their bandwidth to increase system performance.

Dual Rank

2 Ranks, or Dual Rank, how many 64-bit data loads per module.

Dynamic Data Refresh

Dynamic Data Refresh is employed to make sure that during read only operations, blocks with high number of errors can be removed and refreshed for next uses. During each read command, the controller will perform a three stage check on the target block: the first stage is to check for a “need to refresh” mark. The second stage is to check for the number of error bits currently present. The third stage is to check retry for the number of retry count currently present.


ECC

Error Correction Code.

ECC UDIMM

ECC Unbuffered DIMM.

EEPROM

Electrical Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory.


FAT

A file allocation table (FAT) is a file system developed for hard drives. It is used by the operating system (OS) to manage files on hard drives and other computer systems. It is usually used in flash memory, digital cameras, and portable devices. It is used to store file information and extend the life of a hard drive.

FIPS (Federal Information Processing Standards)

Standards and guidelines for US federal computer systems, developed by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), in accordance with the Federal Information Security Management Act (FISMA) and approved by the Secretary of Commerce.

FIPS 197

Advanced Encryption Standard (also known as Rinjdael), a variant of a Belgian-developed block cipher. It uses 128, 192, or 256-bit keys: AES-128 has never been brute force cracked and is sufficiently protected to be cleared for use with Secret-level data. It is the first and only publicly accessible cipher approved by the United States National Security Agency for Top Secret information (192-bit encryption or higher).

FIPS 140-2 Level 3

A common government computer security standard, established in 2019. As well as being production-grade secure and fulfilling requirements for role authentication and physical tampering resistance, systems that meet this standard must have separation between interfaces that “critical security parameters” enter and leave the module by.

Flash Memory

Flash memory is non-volatile (kind of memory that retains data in the absence of a power supply). Flash memory is usually in devices such as solid-state drives (SSDs) and USB flash drives. It is commonly found in personal computers plus enterprise storage solutions.

Form Factor

The size and shape of an electronic component, such as a hard drive or SSD.

Frequency

An older term used to describe memory speed.


Garbage Collection

Garbage Collection is key for NAND Flash to remain durable and maintain its speed. NAND Flash-based devices cannot overwrite data that is already there. They must go through a Program/Erase cycle; to write to an already used block of data, a NAND Flash controller would first copy all valid data (that is still in use) and write it to empty pages of a different block, erase all the cells in the current block (both valid and invalid data), and then write new data to the newly erased block. This process is called Garbage Collection.

Gbps

Gigabits per second, data speed measuring # billion bits per second.

Gigabit (Gb)

A bit is the smallest data unit in computing and is represented as a 1 or 0 (on/off). A Gigabit (Gb) is 1 billion bits (or 109) as defined in the International System of Units (SI). For computer memory, Gb (or Gbit) is commonly used to express the density of a single DRAM component.

Gigabyte (GB)

A byte is comprised of 8 bits. A Gigabyte (GB) is 1 billion bytes (or 109) as defined in the International System of Units (SI). For computer memory, GB is used to represent the total data capacity of a memory module, or group of memory modules combined to equal total system memory.


Heat Spreader

Metal shield attached to modules to dissipate heat.


Infrared Sync Technology™

Patented RGB sync technology using infrared components on HyperX® and Kingston FURY™ memory modules.

Intel®

Intel Corporation

Intel® Xeon®

Intel server processor family.

Intel® XMP 2.0

Intel overclock specification for DDR4 / DDR3.

Intel® XMP 3.0

Intel overclock specification for DDR5.

Intel® XMP 3.0 Certified

Part/kit that has passed and been submitted to Intel self-qualification program version 3 for DDR5.

Intel® XMP 3.0-Ready

Part/kit that is compliant with Intel XMP 3.0 overclock profiles for DDR5.

Intel® XMP Certified

Part/kit that has passed and been submitted to Intel self-qualification program version 2 for DDR4 / DDR3.

Intel® XMP-Ready

Part/kit that is compliant with Intel XMP 2.0 or earlier overclock profiles for DDR4 / DDR3.

IR Sync

Kingston Infrared Sync Technology shortened.


JEDEC

Joint Electron Device Engineering Council, industry standards body.


Kingston FURY™ Beast

Entry-level DIMM overclock memory product line.

Kingston FURY™ Impact

SODIMM based overclock memory product line.

Kingston FURY™ Renegade

Extreme performance DIMM overclock memory product line.

Kit

A part number that includes multiple memory modules typically in support of dual, triple, or quad channel memory architecture. For example, K2 = 2 DIMMs in the package to equal the total capacity.


Length (mm) x Height (mm) x Width (mm)

Module measurements in millimeters of a module including the heat spreader.

LRDIMM

Load Reduced DIMM.


M.2

A form factor for internally mounted computer expansion cards. It allows for different module widths and lengths.

Mbps

Megabits per second, data speed measuring # million bits per second.

Memory

Area of the computer that temporarily holds data for the processor.

Memory Channel

A memory channel is the data transfer path between a memory module and a memory controller (typically found within the processor). Most computer systems (PCs, laptops, servers) feature a multi-channel memory architecture, where channels are combined to increase memory performance. A Dual Channel memory architecture would denote when identical modules are installed as a pair, the effective bandwidth for the memory controller is doubled.

MHz

MegaHertz, million (clock) cycles per second.

microSD Card

A type of very small memory card typically used in mobile phones and other portable devices.

MT/s

MegaTransfers per Second, speed measuring # million data transfers per second.


NAND

A type of flash memory, an electronic non-volatile storage medium able to be electrically erased and reprogrammed. NAND stands for NOT AND, a logic gate (means of producing specific output in digital electronics).

NAND Device Stacking

To increase storage capacity, a non-volatile memory device such as a NAND flash memory may have multiple stacks of memory dies (e.g., chips) to form a memory die package. The memory die package can be implemented in various forms such as a DDP (Double-Die Package), a QDP (Quad-Die Package), an ODP (Octo-Die Package), all the way up to HDP (16 die package). Die stacking technology enables higher capacity in small form factors such as a USB drive or M.2 SSDs.

Non-ECC

No ECC function supported.

Non-Volatile Memory

Non-volatile memory is a type of computer memory that has the ability to hold saved data even if the power is shut off.

NVM Express™ (NVMe™)

Non-Volatile Memory Express, an open interface specification for accessing computers’ non-volatile storage, e.g. SSDs.


On-Die ECC (ODECC)

Error Correction Code inside the DRAM chip.


PCB

Printed Circuit Board, green/blue for all modules but FURY, which is always black.

PCI Express® (PCIe®)

Peripheral Component Interconnect Express, an interface standard for high-speed components such as GPUs or SSDs.

PMIC

Power Management Integrated Circuit, a cluster of components on DDR5 modules to manage power distribution.

Plug N Play (PnP)

When used with Kingston FURY Beast and Kingston FURY Impact, describes a Kingston method of overclocking without having to enable settings.

Power Failure Protection

Power loss is unavoidable and can cause havoc in a work environment if the proper hardware is not being used. Power Failure Protection is necessary to prevent data loss. A supported host device can send a command to the card that will halt any of its operations if it detects any drop in power. This allows the card time to save any data currently being written at the time of loss of power.


Quad Channel

Memory socket architecture where four identical memory modules installed aggregate their bandwidth to increase system performance.

Quad Rank

4 Ranks, or Quad Rank, how many 64-bit data loads per module.

QVL

Qualified vendor list.


RAM

Random Access Memory.

Rank

A rank refers to an addressable data block on a memory module. For DDR2, DDR3, and DDR4 these data blocks are 64-bits wide (x64), plus 8-bits for ECC (x72). DDR5 modules are also 64-bits per rank, however when ECC is featured the data block is 80-bits wide per rank (x80). A module can be built as Single Rank (1R), Dual Rank (2R), Quad Rank (4R), or Octal Rank (8R). The number of ranks typically increase to allow for higher module capacities to be achieved.

RAS

Row Address Strobe, a method of accessing data in memory.

RDIMM

Registered DIMM

Ready for AMD Ryzen™

AMD self-qualification program for overclocking on AMD Ryzen based computers.

Register

A buffer chip featured on server class memory modules that manages data loads.

RGB

Red, Green, and Blue LEDs


SATA

Short for Serial Advanced Technology Attachment, SATA is a computer bus interface which connects to mass storage devices such as hard drives and SSDs.

SD Card

A type of memory card typically used in digital cameras and other portable devices.

SD Speed Class

The SD Association has established standards that rate the minimum data transfer on the needs of companies creating video recording products that require certain writing speeds when recording the data onto a memory card. The SD Speed Class, UHS Speed Class and Video Speed Class standardized this for both memory cards and devices to guarantee minimum writing speeds and deliver the best performance.

SDRAM

Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory.

Server Premier

Industry standard memory product line for servers/workstations, part numbers start with "KSM".

SIMM

Single In-line Memory Module (last seen in early 2000s).

Single Rank

1 Rank, or 1R, how many 64-bit data loads per module.

System In Package (SIP)

A system in package (SiP) is a design used to bundle multiple integrated circuits (ICs) and passive components into a single package that may be stacked using package on package. It is usually used in SSDs, USB Drives, SD cards. inside a mobile phone, etc.

SODIMM

Small Outline Dual In-Line Memory Module is a reduced form-factor memory module intended for smaller computer systems such as laptops, micro servers, printers or routers.

SPD

Serial Presence Detect, also known as the SPD EEPROM, a chip on the module that stores information about the part number, specifications.

Speed (a.k.a. Frequency)

The data rate or effective clock speed that a memory module supports measured in MHz (MegaHertz) or MT/s (MegaTransfers per second). The higher the speed, the more data can be transferred per second.

Speed Class (Class 4, 6, 10)

The SD Association standardized speed rating for different external storage cards (SD, microSD). These are characterized as 'Speed Class' and specify the absolute minimum sustained write speeds. Cards can be rated as Class 4 (4MB/s), Class 6 (6MB/s) or Class 10 (10MB/s).

SSD

Solid State Drive, a storage device made up of collections of Flash NAND chips, where data is read and written by a Flash controller instead of a mechanical actuator as with hard disk drives. Due to the lack of mechanical parts, SSDs operate more smoothly and efficiently than HDDs. Another advantage of SSDs over HDDs is that they are not vulnerable to magnetic interference.

Strong ECC Engine

NAND Flash memory must maintain data integrity as data moves from the host PC to the NAND storage, via the Flash controller. The data transfers from the host to the card are often referred to as “data in flight” or “data in transit” before they are actually written to the NAND Flash storage. Flash controllers incorporate Error Correction technology (called ECC, which stands for Error Correction Code) to detect and correct most errors that can affect data along this trajectory. Flash memory chips incorporate additional error correction information, along with every block of data that is written; this information allows the Flash controller to simultaneously correct many errors when reading a data block. NAND Flash memory, like hard disk drives, will encounter bit errors during normal operation that it will correct on the fly with its ECC data. If a NAND device has excessive errors in a data block, then that block will be marked as a Bad Block, retired and one of the spare blocks will be rotated into service. During this process, the data will be corrected if needed using ECC. The use of Spare Blocks extends the useful life and endurance of SSDs.

Subchannel

Refers to DDR5 memory modules that divide the 64-bit address into two 32-bit segments to increase efficiency.


UDIMM

Non-ECC Unbuffered Dual In-Line Memory Module) is a long form-factor memory module with a data width of x64 most commonly used in desktop systems where error correction is not required and DIMM capacity is restricted.

UHS-I Video Speed Class

A speed class for video recording. The minimum write speed of the medium in question is measured by a letter followed by a number. A V30 speed class has a minimum write speed of 30MB/s.

Unbuffered

No data buffers are featured on the module, like a Register.

U.2

A computer interface standard for connecting SSDs, designed for the enterprise market. Typically comes in the 2.5” form factor and offers more storage than the M.2.

UHS-I

Ultra-High Speed – I (UHS-I) is a speed class for SDHC and SDXC memory cards. UHS-I has a bus interface speed of up to 104 MB/s.

UHS-II

Ultra-High Speed – II (UHS-II) is a speed class for SDHC and SDXC memory cards. UHS-I has a bus interface speed of up to 312 MB/s. The difference from the first version (UHS-I), was the added second row of pins, which uses Low Voltage Differential Signaling (LVDS) technology to allow higher transfer rates.

UHS Speed Class (U1, U3)

Ultra High Speed (UHS) specifies the minimum sustained writing performance for video recording. There are two UHS Speed Classes that the SD Association created, UHS Speed Class 1 and UHS Speed Class 3. UHS Speed Class 1 supports a minimum of 10MB/s write speed and UHS Speed Class 3 supports at least 30MB/s write speed. The UHS Speed Class are usually recognized by either a 1 or 3 inside of a U symbol.

USB

Universal Serial Bus (USB) is a standard interface that permits connection between devices and a host controller such as a personal computer (PC) or smartphone. It connects peripheral devices such as digital cameras, mice, keyboards, printers, scanners, media devices, external hard drives, and flash drives.

USB 3.2 Gen 1 (5Gbps)/USB 3.2 Gen 2 (10Gbps)/USB 3.2 Gen 2x2/USB 4

The difference between these USB standards is the data transfer speed capabilities. USB 3.2 Gen 1 supports speeds of up to 5Gbit/s, USB 3.2 Gen 2 supports speeds of up to 10Gbit/s, USB 3.2 Gen 2x2 supports speeds of up to 20Gbit/s, and USB4 supports speeds of up to 40Gbit/s. For more information: https://www.kingston.com/en/usb-flash-drives/usb-30.


Video Speed Class (V10, V30, V60, V90)

Video Speed Class was created by the SD Association to classify cards that can operate at higher video resolutions and recording features. This speed class guarantees minimum sustained performance for recording video. This includes V6, V10, V30, V60 and V90. V90 Speed Class means that the minimum write speed of the memory card needs to perform at 90MB/s, V30 is 30MB/s, and so forth. For more information: https://www.kingston.com/en/blog/personal-storage/memory-card-speed-classes.

ValueRAM

Industry standard memory product line for PCs, part numbers start with "KVR".

VLP

Very Low Profile, refers to the height of the PCB module.


Wear Leveling

Kingston Flash storage devices incorporate controllers utilizing advanced wear leveling technology, which distributes the number of P/E cycles (program/erase) across the Flash memory evenly. Wear-leveling thus extends the useful life of a Flash memory card.


x16

DRAM data width, 16 bit.

x4

DRAM data width, 4 bit.

x64

Module data width, 64-bit non-ECC.

x72

Module data width, 72-bit ECC (64 + 8bits).

x8

DRAM data width, 8 bit.

x80

Module data width, 80-bit ECC (dual 32 + 8 but subchannels).

XMP

Intel Extreme Memory Profile, pre-programmed timings on overclock modules.

XTS-AES

XEX Tweakable Block Ciphertext Stealing Advanced Encryption Standard; functionally is a tweakable block cipher for data units of 128 bits or more, using the AES block cipher as a subroutine. It is a highly secure mode of encryption used by many organizations both administrative and corporate.